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11th International Conference on Oncology Research & Cancer Stem Cells, will be organized around the theme “Gathering Experts to Eradicate Cancer”
Oncology Research 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Oncology Research 2018
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Oncology is a branch of medicine that involves the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer and Tumours. Oncology has three major divisions, Medical Oncology, Surgical Oncology and Radiation Oncology. Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth, spread to all other parts of the body, which leads to formation of lumps or masses of tissue called tumours (cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream, only in the case of leukaemia). A medical professional who practices oncology is known as oncologist. Tumours grow very rapidly and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems and release hormones that fluctuates function of body. Cancer is the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and accounts for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths in US. Some of the tumour cell does not spread all over the body but they grow uncontrollably like benign tumour. The high risk of cancer increases with the increase in age. The estimated financial costs of cancer in 2010 were $1.16 trillion USD per year.
Surgical oncology comes under the field of surgery, applied to oncology which involves the surgical management of tumours, mainly cancerous tumours. Goal of surgical oncologist, removes the cancerous cells and keeping an area of healthy tissue surrounding it, known as a clear margin or clear excision, in order to prevent the cancer from that recurring in that area. Surgical oncologist are also called as general surgical oncologist, thoracic surgical oncologists, subspecialty of general surgery, gynaecologic oncologists experienced in treating the cancer patients. The Ewing Society recognised today as the Society of Surgical Oncology was started by surgeons interested in initiating and promoting the field of oncology. Sometimes it is difficult to remove the whole tumor, so therefore a debulking surgery can be done to remove as much as tumour as possible and to relieve symptoms such as pain, airway obstruction, or bleeding. Complex General Surgical Oncology was given by American Board of Surgery, specially ratified as specialty Board certification in the year 2011.
Pediatic Oncology is a branch of medicine which deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean "healer of children"; they derive from two Greek words: pais "child" and iatros "doctor, healer". The age limit, from birth up to 18-21 yrs. Pediatricians work both in primary care physicians and hospitals, especially they works in a specialized subfields such as neonatology. Paediatric oncologists diagnose, treat, and manage children, suffering from cancers which include leukaemia, lymphomas, brain tumours, bone tumours, and solid tumors. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is called as a paediatrician or paediatrician. The body of an infant or neonate is substantially physiologically different when compare to an adult. Congenital defects, genetic variance and developmental issues are some greater concern to paediatricians as compare to adult physicians.
Cervical Cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. But in the United States and other countries where cervical cancer screening is routine, this cancer is not so common. Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called Human papillomavirus or also spelled as HPV. There are many types of the HPV virus, but all of HPV does not cause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other types may not show any Cervical Cancer symptoms and signs. An infection may go away on its own. But sometimes it can cause genital warts or can also lead to cervical cancer, it's important for women to have regular Pap tests. A Pap test can find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer cells. Thus treatment of these cell changes, prevent cervical cancer.
Neuro oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, which are very dangerous and leads to risking of life. Some of them are astrocytoma a type of brain cancer; glioma is type of tumor starts at brain or spine, glioblastoma which is also called as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors. Brain tumors can occur at any age of an individual, from primary stage to late in life. Most of the primary tumours are found common in women. A person who is trained in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system is known as Neuro oncologist. Primary malignant brain tumours are found 5,000 people in UK each year and others are found with secondary tumours.
The use of radiation to treat cancer is defined as Radiation Oncology. X-rays, gamma rays, or electrons are some of the radiations used to treat the Radiation Oncology. A physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer is known as Radiation Oncologist. Thus Oncologists uses radiation to treat some of the benign diseases and benign tumours. Radiation oncology is one of the primary specialties among surgical and medical oncology, which are involved in the treatment of cancer. The field of radiation oncology gives the integration of radiation therapy into multimodal treatment approaches. Radiation Oncology focuses on all aspects of research, which impacts on the treatment of cancer using radiation. It not only shows findings in molecular and cellular radiation biology but also in wide range of radiation physics, radiation technology, and clinical oncology.
Cardiooncology also known as Cardiovascular Oncology is an integrative field of medicine, used to study the molecular and clinical alterations in cardiovascular system during the treatment of cancer specially chemo and targeted therapy. Oncology is a branch of medicine that involves the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer and Tumours. The high risk of cancer increases with the increase in age. The estimated financial costs of cancer in 2010 were $1.16 trillion USD per year.
The oncology nurse works as a coordinator of care i.e., they take the at most care of an individual, collaborating with other cancer care providers and team members to provide required care that the individual need. Thus the advance nursing practice in oncology leads to mastery of the nursing process which provides the ability to guide, and evaluate nursing practice delivered to individuals diagnosed with cancer. The oncology nurse works expertly with the multidisciplinary oncology team to achieve realistic healthcare goals for an individual or for an entire community.
Cancer stem cells were first identified by Scientist John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that shows characteristics associated with normal stem cells, drived from tumorigenesis and gives rise to a large population of differentiated progeny that make up the bulk of the tumour, but lack tumorigenic potential, therefore they are Tumour forming. CSCs generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiate into multiple cell types. CSCs have recently been identified in several solid tumors such as in Brain, Breast, Colon, Ovary, Pancreas, Prostate, Melanoma and Multiple Myeloma.
Research has shown that cancer cells are different. There are a variety of types of cells among the circulating cancerous cells or in the malignant tumor. According to the stem cell theory of cancer, few among the cancerous cell act as stem cell. Cancer stem cells shows characteristics associated with normal stem cells. Rare CSC’s isolated from human tumours, including haematopoietic cancer, brain cancer, colon cancer and breast cancers. The cancer stem-cell concept is having important implications on cancer therapy. Researchers at the Ludwig Centre observe that our normal stem cells are the only cells, reproduce by themselves and are long enough for all the necessary changes to produce cancer. Thus the Ludwig Cancer Stem Cell Research and Medicine Centre at Stanford, deals with the treatment and investigations of cancer through stem cell biology and medicine.
The first cells identified in a solid tumour were Breast cancer stem cells, discovered by U-M scientist Al-Hajj at the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Centre in 2003. Only few cancer stem cells are responsible for the growth and spread of breast cancer. Until cancer stem cells are destroyed, the tumor spreads the malignant cells to other parts of the body, a process called metastasis. Breast malignancy begins when cells in the bosom start to become wild. These cells for the most part shape a tumor that can frequently be seen on an x-beam or felt as a knot. The tumor is dangerous (disease) if the cells can develop into (attack) encompassing tissues or spread (metastasize) to inaccessible zones of the body. Bosom growth happens totally in ladies, yet men can get breast cancer, as well. Absence of physical work out, weight, drinking liquor, hormone substitution treatment amid menopause is some common cases for female with breast tumor. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in many States, more than 40,000 women deaths occurs each year.
Cancer epidemiology is concerned with the estimation and study of cancer and its prevalence in a certain area of population, to conclude the possible trends, causes of cancer and develop improved treatments by the use of epidemiological methods. Cancer epidemiology is principally concerned with the study of cancer, its causes, detection, and treatment based on the progression of the disease. Approximately 12.7 million cancers were diagnosed every year and 7.98 million people died in the year 2010 due to Cancer. The high risk of cancer increases with the increase in age. The common childhood cancers are leukemia around 34%, brain tumors around 23% and lymphomas around 14%.
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth, spread to all other parts of the body, which leads to formation of lumps or masses of tissue called tumours. Cancer is one among the leading causes of death all over the world. Organ Specific Cancers are cancers named based on the location of cancer in the body organ. There are different types of cancers which effected different organs of the body ,Some of them are Head and Neck Cancer, Brain cancer, Lung cancer, Oral cancer, Liver cancer, Breast cancer, Prostate cancer, Gastric cancer, Pancreatic cancer, Kidney (Renal Cell) cancer, Leukemia and many more. Cancers of the brain are the consequence of abnormal growths of cells in the brain and leads to brain cancer. The most common cancer of the head and neck is Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), which accounts for over 300,000 new cancer cases worldwide annually. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common cancer and third commonest cause of cancer mortality over the globe. Lung, prostate, colon, rectum, stomach and liver are the most common sites affected in men by cancer. The most common sites affected by cancer in women are breast, colon, rectum, lung, cervix and stomach.
The main concept and idea of oncogenomics is to check new group of oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes that may give new areas of research into cancer diagnosis, predicting clinical outcome of cancers and new targets for cancer therapies. Oncogenomics is a sub-field of genomics that characterizes cancer-associated or cancer related genes. It focuses mainly on genomic, epigenomic and transcript alterations in cancer. The Gleevec, Herceptin and Avastin are the targeted cancer therapies which gave a new way for oncogenomics to elucidate new targets for cancer treatment. The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism that are the end products of cellular processes and gives physiology of the given cell. One of the challenging aspects of systems biology and functional genomics is to integrate proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic information which provide a better understanding of cellular biology.
Carcinogenesis also called as oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, leads to formation of a cancer, where normal cells are turned into cancerous. Thus the process is characterized by changes at epigenetic, genetic and cellular levels. The main idea of carcinogenesis is to check new group of oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes that may give new areas of research into cancer diagnosis, predicting clinical outcome of cancers and new targets for cancer therapies. There are also many epigenetic changes that alter whether genes are expressed or not expressed. The presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a gene is known as Aneuploidy. It is a genomic change, not a mutation. Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs only when cell gains 20 or more than 20 copies of a small chromosomal region, containing one or more oncogenes and apart to it adjacent genetic material. Mutagenesis is a process by which, genetic information of an species or an organism is changed and thus results in a mutation and can lead to cancer and various heritable diseases, done by physical, chemical or biological agents. In the laboratories, Mutagenesis plays an important technique where, DNA mutations are intentionally engineered so that they can produce mutant strains, proteins, or Gene of an organism.
Hematology, also well known as “haematology” is the branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and also to the extent of control of diseases related to blood. Physicians who work in hematology laboratories are well known as hematopathologists or in other words also known as haematopathologists. Hematology includes the study of etiology. It involves the treatment of diseases which usually affect the production of blood and its components; it includes blood cells (RBC, WBC, etc…), hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and also mechanism of coagulation. These kinds of diseases include hemophilia, blood clots, other bleeding disorders and mostly blood cancers such as leukaemia, myeloma, and lymphoma. The laboratory work related with the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientists. The number of cells in the body can be detected by C.B.C, known as complete blood count and the high and low amount of cells will lead to many diseases.
Hematologic oncology is the branch of medicine which deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of many diseases related to blood. Haematology involves the study of etiology. It involves the treatment of diseases which usually affect the production of blood and its components; it includes blood cells (RBC, WBC, etc…), haemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, spleen, and also mechanism of coagulation. These kinds of diseases include hemophilia, blood clots, other bleeding disorders and mostly blood cancers such as leukaemia, myeloma, and lymphoma. Blood cancers affect the production of most of the blood cells in the body. These types of cancers start in patient’s bone marrow where the blood is produced. Stem cells mature and develop into three types of blood cells, which are White blood cells, red blood cells or platelets; they are smallest type of blood cell present in the bone marrow. The normal growth of blood cell is stopped by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal blood cells, which are generally cancerous.
It is a field of research to innovate cancer immunotherapies to treat, prevent and stop progression of the disease. The immune response, having the capacity of recognition of cancer-specific antigens, forms the basis of targeted therapy (like vaccines & antibody therapies) and tumour marker-based diagnostic tests. Cancer immunology is a branch of immunology that deals with the interactions of immune system with cancer cells (also called tumors or malignancies). It is a growing field of research that aims to discover innovative cancer immunotherapies to treat and retard progression of the disease. Recent advances in our understanding of antigen recognition, presentation and molecules involved in T and B cell activation, have provided new and excited immuno therapeutic strategies which can be used against the cancer cells or Tumors. Cancer is the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and accounts for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths in US.
Biomarkers refers to substance or process which indicates the presence of cancer in the body, and are particularly associated with genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations, which determine whether individuals are susceptible to particular types of cancers. Some of the potentially predictive cancer biomarkers include mutations on genes such as KRAS, p53, EGFR, erbB2 for colorectal, esophageal, liver, and pancreatic cancer. Mutations of genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 are for breast and ovarian cancer. abnormal methylation of tumour suppressor genes like p16, CDKN2B, and p14ARF are mostly for brain cancer. hypermethylation of MYOD1, CDH1, and CDH13 are for cervical cancer and finally hyper methylation of p16, p14, and RB1, for oral cancer. Therefore these kinds of biomarkers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids like blood or serum.
Melanoma is one type of skin Cancer that arises when the melanocytes become cancerous. It is most common type of skin cancer but very serious if avoided. Melanoma, also called malignant melanoma, develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. It typically occurs in the skin and rarely in the mouth, intestines, or eye. Individuals with low levels of skin pigment when expose to ultra violet light causes Melanoma. The use of sunscreen and avoiding UV light may prevent melanoma disease to a larger extent. Further treatment removal by surgery. Skin cancers are majorly arises from the skin. They are mainly due to abnormal growth of the cells that have the ability to spread to all other parts of the body of an individual. Basal-cell skin cancer (BCC), squamous-cell skin cancer (SCC) and melanoma are the common types of skin cancer seen in most of the individuals. Among these three BCC and SCC are commonly known as non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Thus the non-melanoma skin cancer can be easily cured.
Cancer is one of the greatest health challenges, and a leading cause of death in every corner of the world. The global market for Cancer drugs is predicted to grow twice as fast as that of other pharmaceuticals over the next few years. Top companies include Janssen biotech, Takeda oncology, Boehringer ingelheim, Roche, Novartis, Celgene, Johnson & Johnson, and Amgen. The cancer industry is the most commonly valuable business in the USA. It has been noticed that, there are 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and 585,720 cancer deaths in the US in the year 2014. $6 billion of tax-payer funds are cycled through various federal agencies for cancer research mainly as the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The NCI states that the medical costs of cancer care are $125 billion, with the rise of 39 percent to $173 billion by the upcoming year that is 2020. The most common motto of the cancer industry is it employs too many people and produces too much income to allow a cure to be found.
Diagnosis is the identification of a condition or disease, suffering a patient, diagnosed by systematic analysis of the background history and further investigation of the assumed or probable causes. Effective prognosis is not possible without effective diagnosis. Cancer can be treated by many methods, such as surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy and synthetic lethality. The common diagnosis tests include blood tests, X-rays, CT scans and endoscopy. The tissue diagnosis from the biopsy indicates the type of cell that proliferates, through its histological grade, genetic abnormalities and other features. Diagnosis mainly depends on site and type of malignancy. The cancer services market is estimated to demand in future, due to increasing number of cancer patients across the world. The radiation therapy market is projected to reach 8.7$ by 2022. Technology developments are seen in the further growth. OCM (Oncology Care Model) is designed by the United States to provide high quality coordination care services.
Drug cooperation in oncology is of specific significance attributable to the tight healing list and the immutable lethality of anticancer specialists. The main purpose of the drug is not only treating cancer, but also for relieving symptoms of the cancer such as pain and side-effects, such as nausea, commonly seen with the various types of treatment. The site of the cells which is affected determines the side-effects of the individual drugs. Patients are more likely to get infected when bleed very easily, and may feel weak and very tire. Vaccines have been developed that prevent infection by some carcinogenic viruses. Human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) decrease the risk of developing cervical cancer and helps in decrease in the risk of cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus and thus decreases the risk of liver cancer. The administration of human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccinations is advisable most commonly. Some cancer drugs are Cabazitaxel, Cetuximab, etc... Chemotherapy drug combinations are as such Cisplatin, Crizotinib.
Cancer can be treated by many methods, such as surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy and synthetic lethality. People suffering with cancer can be investigated through medical tests. These commonly include blood tests are X-rays, CT scans and endoscopy. The tissue diagnosis from the biopsy indicates the type of cell that proliferates, through its histological grade, genetic abnormalities and other features. Thus all together it gives the useful information about molecular changes such as mutations, fusion genes and numerical chromosome to estimate or show the prognosis and to choose the best treatment. Cytogenetics and immunohistochemistry are other common tissue tests. The removal of the cancer without damaging the other parts of the body (by achieving cure with near-zero adverse effects) is the main goal of treatment. The type of treatment depend on the type of cancer the patient is suffering with and how advanced it is. Some people with cancer have only one type of treatment. But for most of the people, they have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy (use of drugs to kill cancer cells) or radiation therapy. Immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy are other kind of treatment for cancer.
Efforts to detect cancer after it has been formed before, a symptom appears involves screening of cancer. Diagnosis involves the medical signs and symptoms. Thus Cancer screening involves physical examination of an individual, includes blood or urine tests or medical imaging. For most types of cancer, Screening is not possible. Many tests are available, but they are not recommended to everyone. Selective screening identifies people with a family history and is at high risk. Cancer prevention is, steps taken to decrease the risk of cancer. The major risk of cancer is due to environmental risk factors. Thus environmental factors therefore can be potentially preventable. Most of the Vaccines have been developed, for the prevention of infections by some carcinogenic viruses. A Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug reduces the risk of colorectal cancer.
Case reports of oncology and Cancer Stem Cell gives the information of the preventive or therapeutic interventions, as these generally require stronger evidence. Thus a case report is an enlarged report of all the details of a disease or of a disorder usually made for an individual patient usually logged in medical field. Case reports give the demographic profile of the patient suffering from disease, but stereotypically reference any unusual or unique incidences. In this Cancer based conference, various special cases where treatment was undiscovered or a special case which might lead the insights into the Oncology research are discussed. Thus a case report of oncology and Cancer Stem Cell is a unique therapeutic approach.
A platform aimed to connect Entrepreneurs, Proposers and the Investors from the Globe. Now a day’s several biotech and pharmaceutical industries are emerging. Each of them partially or completely relate to the Oncology and Cancer. It's intended to create and facilitate the most optimized and viable meeting place for engaging people in global business discussions, evaluation and execution of promising business ideas. An investor could be able to find out the highest potential investment opportunities globally, which provide good return on investment. For entrepreneurs, this would be an ideal place to find out suitable investors and partners to start and/or expand their business. Thus it is a perfect place to connect Entrepreneurs, Business Owners, Early Stage Companies and Established Corporates with National or International Investors, Corporate Investors and Potential Business Partners.