Cancer Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis

Carcinogenesis also called as oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, leads to formation of a cancer, where normal cells are turned into cancerous. Thus the process is characterized by changes at epigenetic, genetic and cellular levels. The main idea of carcinogenesis is to check new group of oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes that may give new areas of research into cancer diagnosis, predicting clinical outcome of cancers and new targets for cancer therapies. There are also many epigenetic changes that alter whether genes are expressed or not expressed. The presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a gene is known as Aneuploidy. It is a genomic change, not a mutation. Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs only when cell gains 20 or more than 20 copies of a small chromosomal region, containing one or more oncogenes and apart to it adjacent genetic material. Mutagenesis is a process by which, genetic information of an species or an organism is changed and thus results in a mutation and can lead to cancer and various heritable diseases, done by physical, chemical or biological agents. In the laboratories, Mutagenesis plays an important technique where, DNA mutations are intentionally engineered so that they can produce mutant strains, proteins, or Gene of an organism.

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